(6) Planet Blue

NASA IMAX: The Earth - Blue Planet

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Mapping the Earth

Earth has been mapped by drawing imaginary lines on its surface. Mapping has helped us in getting information about places on Earth.

The imaginary lines drawn on Earth’s surface are the equator, the latitudes, and the longitudes. They help in the determination of north and south on the globe or map. They are measured in degrees.

Cartography

 Cartography is the science of making maps. People who create maps are known as cartographers.

 • The oldest known map was found on a 4,300-year-old Babylonian clay tablet.

• The Greeks had advanced knowledge of cartography.

• Anaximander was the first Greek to create a map of the world.

• Ptolemy, in around 150 CE, made a world map, which depicted location in terms of latitude and longitude.

• Maps became widely available after the invention of printing in the 15th century.

• In 1508, Rosselli's World Map was the first map to show the entire globe.

• Gerardus Mercator of Belgium was a leading cartographer in the mid-16th century.

 Map after World War II

 The use of aerial photography after the Second World War led to the development of modern cartography

 Equator

 The equator is na imaginary line drawn around the center of Earth. It divides Earth’s sphere into Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere. The length of the equator is about 24,901.55 miles. The equator passes through 13 different countries.

 Launch Pad

 Launch points for rockets to space are usually near the equator because there is more centrifugal force on the equator than in any other place on Earth.

 Equatorial Countries

 The equator passes through São Tomé and Príncipe, Gabon, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Kenya, Somalia, Maldives, Indonesia, Kiribati, Ecuador, Colombia, and Brazil.

 • The equator is the longest line of latitude on Earth.

• The equator is located at zero degrees latitude.

• The sun is directly overhead at noon at the equator on the two equinoxes: March and September 21.

• The rate of sunrise and sunset is quickest in places near the equator.

• Volcán Cayambe in Ecuador is the highest point on the Equator.

• The word “equator” is derived from latin aequare meaning to equalize.

 Tropical Zone

 The tropical zone is the zone between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. It lies between latitudes 23°27' north and 23°27' south. These places experience a very hot and humid climate and receive heavy rainfall. The Tropical zone covers around 40 percent of the earth’s surface.

 Subdivision of Tropic Zone

 The tropic zone is subdivided into three major zones: humid tropics, wet-dry tropics, and dry tropics.

 Agricultural Products

 Agricultural products grown in tropical regions include rubber, tea, coffee, cocoa, spices, bananas, pineapples, nuts, and lumber.

• Tropical zone countries include India, China, Australia, Africa, and countries of Central and South America.

• Humid tropics receive around 40 inches of rainfall per year.

• Rainforests lie in the humid tropics.

• Wet-dry tropics receive between 10 and 80 inches of rainfall per year.

• Savannah grasslands are found in the wet -dry tropics.

• Dry tropics receive less than 10 inches of rainfall per year.

• Xerophilous plants are found in dry tropics.

 Agricultural products grown in tropical regions include rubber, tea, coffee, cocoa, spices, bananas, pineapples, nuts, and lumber.

 Temperate

 The temperate zone is found between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle in the Northern Hemisphere and the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle in the Southern Hemisphere. The climate is not extreme in this zone. The weather at times is quite unpredictable with rain and low temperatures being common in the summers.

 Temperate Zone in Northern Hemisphere

 In the Northern Hemisphere, the temperate zone includes countries such as Russia, China, Korea, the United States, Canada, and Japan.

 Temperate Zone in  Southern Hemisphere

 In the Southern of Hemisphere, the temperate zone includes countries, such as Chile, Australia, and New Zealand.

 • The temperate zone has two main types of climate: maritime and continental.

• Regions of Western Europe and western North America experience a maritime climate.

• The Rocky Mountains in North America separate the maritime climate of the west from the continental climate of the east.

• In Europe, the Alps separate the maritime climate of the west from the continental climate of the east.

• Greek scholar Aristotle was the first to propose the idea of a temperate zone.

• Major tree species of the temperate zone include oak, elm, beech, chestnut, and maple.

 Temperate Zone in Northern Hemisphere

 In the Northern Hemisphere, the temperate zone includes countries such as Russia, China, Korea, the United States, Canada, and Japan.

 

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